The reversal of these ritonavir-mediated changes by interferon-gamma provides a model for possible intervention in this metabolic complication of HIV therapy. (Am
J Pathol 2009, 174:123-135; DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080484)”
“Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) signaling via the Tie2 receptor regulates vascular and hematopoietic systems. To investigate the role of Angptl-Tie2 signaling in hematopoiesis, we prepared conditionally check details inducible transgenic (Tg) mice expressing a genetically engineered Angpt1, cartridge oligomeric matrix protein(COMP)-Angpt1. The effects of COMP-Angpt1 overexpression in osteoblasts on hematopoiesis were then investigated by crossing COMP-Angpt1 Tg mice with Col1a1-Cre Tg mice. Interestingly, peripheral blood analyses showed that 4 week (wk)-old (but not 8 wk-old) Col1a1-Cre+/COMP-Angpt1+ mice had a lower percentage of circulating B cells and a higher percentage of myeloid cells than Col1a1-Cre-/COMP-Angpt1l+ (control) mice. Although there were no significant differences AZD1208 price in the immunophenotypic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) populations between Col1a1-Cre+/COMP-Angpt1+ and control mice, lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kie(+) (LSK) cells isolated from 8 wk-old Col1a1-Cre+/COMP-Angpt1+ mice showed better long-term bone marrow
reconstitution ability. These data indicate that Angpt1-Tie2 signaling affects the differentiation capacity of hematopoietic lineages during development and increases the stem cell activity of HSCs. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background\n\nCongenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments in newborns.\n\nMethods\n\nIn
this phase 2, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated a vaccine consisting of recombinant CMV envelope glycoprotein B with MF59 adjuvant, as compared with placebo. Three doses of the CMV vaccine or placebo were given at 0, 1, and 6 months to CMV-seronegative women within 1 year after they had given birth. We tested for CMV infection in the women in quarterly tests during a 42-month period, using an assay for IgG antibodies against CMV proteins other than glycoprotein B. Infection was confirmed by virus culture or immunoblotting. The primary end point was the time until the detection PF-2341066 of CMV infection.\n\nResults\n\nWe randomly assigned 234 subjects to receive the CMV vaccine and 230 subjects to receive placebo. A scheduled interim analysis led to a stopping recommendation because of vaccine efficacy. After a minimum of 1 year of follow-up, there were 49 confirmed infections, 18 in the vaccine group and 31 in the placebo group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the vaccine group was more likely to remain uninfected during a 42-month period than the placebo group (P = 0.02). Vaccine efficacy was 50% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 73) on the basis of infection rates per 100 person-years.
“In general, recurrent neural networks have difficulties in learning long-term dependencies. The segmented-memory
recurrent neural network (SMRNN) architecture together with the extended real-time recurrent learning (eRTRL) algorithm was proposed to circumvent this problem. Due to its computational complexity eRTRL becomes impractical with increasing network size. Therefore, we introduce the less complex extended backpropagation through time (eBPIT) for SMRNN together with a layer-local unsupervised pre-training procedure. A comparison CH5424802 in vitro on the information latching problem showed that eRTRL is better able to handle the latching of information over longer periods of time, even though eBPTT guaranteed a better generalisation when training was successful. Further, pre-training significantly improved the ability to learn long-term dependencies with eBIDTT. Therefore, the proposed eBPTT algorithm is suited for tasks that require big networks where eRTRL is impractical. The pre-training procedure itself is independent of the supervised learning algorithm and can improve learning in SMRNN in general. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Traumatic brain injury (TB!) is a commonly encountered emergency and severe neurosurgical Semaxanib clinical trial injury. Previous studies have shown that the presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele
has adverse outcomes across the spectrum of TBI severity. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of APOE alleles on trauma induced early apoptosis via modification of delayed rectifier K+ current (I-k(DR)) in neuronallglial Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil co-cultures model. An ex vivo neuronallglial co-cultures model carrying individual APOE alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, epsilon 4) of mechanical injury was developed. Flow cytometry and patch clamp recording were performed to analyze the correlations among APOE genotypes, early apoptosis and I-k(DR). We found that APOE epsilon
4 increased early apoptosis at 24 h (p smaller than 0.05) compared to the ones transfected with APOE epsilon 3 and APOE epsilon 2. Noticeably, APOE epsilon 4 significantly reduced the amplitude of the I-k(DR) at 24 h compared to the APOE epsilon 3 and APOE epsilon 2 (p smaller than 0.05) which exacerbate Ca2+ influx. This indicates a possible effect of APOE epsilon 4 on early apoptosis via inhibiting I-k(DR) following injury which may adversely affect the outcome of TBI. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“N-terminal targeting signals (presequences) direct proteins across the TOM complex in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the TIM23 complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Presequences provide directionality to the transport process and regulate the transport machineries during translocation. However, surprisingly little is known about how presequence receptors interact with the signals and what role these interactions play during preprotein transport.
Thus, after 48 h the SN-38 manufacturer concentration of the PC-isoforms CysPC2-3 and CysGSH attained between 105 and 199 nmol g(-1) fresh weight (FW), whereas the PC2-3 concentrations were only 15 nmol g(-1) FW. The relative quantification of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) mRNA suggests the generation of CysPCs by glutamate cleavage from canonic PCs by gamma-GT. Furthermore, a homology model of C. reinhardtii phytochelatin synthase was constructed to verify the use of crystal structures from Anabaena sp. phytochelatin synthase (PCS) for docking studies with canonical PCs and
CysPCs. From the difference in energy scores, we hypothesize that CysPC may prevent the synthesis of canonical PCs by blocking the binding pocket. Finally, possible physiological Selleck MK-0518 reasons for the high abundance of CysPC compared with their canonic precursors are discussed.”
“Infectious diseases and impaired renal function often occur in critically ill patients, and delaying the start of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy or starting inappropriate therapy has been associated with poor outcomes. Our primary objective was to critically review and discuss the influence of chronic
kidney discase (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) on the clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of antimicrobial agents. The effect of continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRTs) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) on drug disposition in these two populations was also evaluated. Finally, proposed dosing strategies for selected antimicrobials in critically ill adult patients as well as those receiving CRRT or IHD have been compiled. We conducted a PUbMed search (January 1980-March 2008) Ro-3306 price to identify all English-language literature published in which dosing recommendations were proposed for antimicrobials commonly used in critically ill patients, including those receiving CRRT or IHD. All pertinent reviews, selected studies, and associated references were evaluated to ensure
their relcvance. Forty anti microbial, antifungal, and antiviral agents commonly used in critically ill patients were included for review. Dosage recommendations were synthesized from the 42 reviewed articles and peer-reviewed, evidence-based clinical drug databases to generate initial guidance for the determination of antimicrobial dosing strategies for critically ill adults. Because of the evolving process of critical illness, whether in patients with AKI or in those with CKD, prospective adaptation of these initial dosing recommendations to meet the needs of’ each individual patient will often rely on prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data.”
“The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and prognostic importance of paratracheal lymph nodes in squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. A retrospective review of 64 previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the hypopharynx that underwent surgery was performed.
“The objective of this study was to investigate the nature and biomechanical
properties of collagen fibers within the human myocardium. Targeting cardiac interstitial abnormalities will likely become a major focus of future preventative GSK2126458 nmr strategies with regard to the management of cardiac dysfunction. Current knowledge regarding the component structures of myocardial collagen networks is limited, further delineation of which will require application of more innovative technologies. We applied a novel methodology involving combined confocal laser scanning and atomic force microscopy to investigate myocardial collagen within ex-vivo right atrial tissue from 10 patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery. Immuno-fluorescent co-staining revealed discrete collagen land III fibers. During single fiber deformation, overall median values of stiffness recorded in collagen III were 37 +/- 16% lower than in collagen I [p<0.001]. On fiber retraction, collagen I exhibited greater degrees of elastic recoil [p<0.001; relative percentage increase in elastic recoil 7 +/- 3%] and less energy dissipation than collagen III [p<0.001; relative percentage increase in work recovered 7 +/- 2%]. In atrial biopsies taken
from patients in permanent atrial fibrillation (n = 5) versus sinus rhythm (n = 5), stiffness
of both collagen fiber subtypes was augmented (p<0.008). Myocardial fibrillar collagen GW786034 chemical structure fibers organize in a discrete manner and possess distinct biomechanical differences; specifically, collagen I fibers exhibit relatively higher stiffness, contrasting with higher susceptibility to plastic deformation and less energy efficiency on deformation with collagen III fibers. Augmented stiffness of both collagen PLX4032 in vitro fiber subtypes in tissue samples from patients with atrial fibrillation compared to those in sinus rhythm are consistent with recent published findings of increased collagen cross-linking in this setting. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Thexton AJ, Crompton AW, Owerkowicz T, German RZ. Impact of rhythmic oral activity on the timing of muscle activation in the swallow of the decerebrate pig. J Neurophysiol 101: 1386-1393, 2009. First published December 10, 2008; doi:10.1152/jn.90847.2008. The pharyngeal swallow can be elicited as an isolated event but, in normal animals, it occurs within the context of rhythmic tongue and jaw movement (RTJM). The response includes activation of the multifunctional geniohyoid muscle, which can either protract the hyoid or assist jaw opening; in conscious nonprimate mammals, two bursts of geniohyoid EMG activity (GHemg) occur in swallow cycles at times consistent with these two actions.
(c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Hydrogenated polyisoprene (HPIP) nanoparticles, synthesized via organic solvent-free hydrogenation using RhCl3/TPPMS as a catalyst, are novel nanofillers for natural rubber (NR) blends. Hydrogenation of a polyisoprene (PIP) emulsion was carried out in a Parr reactor. Rhodium trichloride (RhCl3 center dot 3H(2)O) and monosulfonated triphenylphosphine (TPPMS) were
used as the catalyst precursor. The HPIP was characterized PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor clinical trial by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The PIP hydrogenation in the absence of organic solvent is a first-order reaction with respect to carbon carbon double bond concentration, and the rate constant was dependent on catalyst concentration. The highest hydrogenation degree of 93% was achieved at a catalyst concentration of 250 mu M with a reaction time of 12 h. The NR/HPIP blends (blend ratio = 80:20) after thermal aging show high % retention of their tensile strength and modulus, maintaining 94.5% and 93.7%, respectively. Moreover, a combination of HPIP in NR improved the ozone resistance at the surface of the rubber blends. Therefore, the NR/HPIP BKM120 chemical structure composite exhibited a good retention of tensile properties after thermal aging and good
resistance toward ozone. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 3-dimensional exercise with visual feedback on stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-two patients with
hemiplegia were randomly allocated to either a 3D exercise group (3DG) Consisting of 11 members or a weight shifting exercise group (WSG), also of 11 members. [Methods] The 3DG received neurophysiological treatment and performed 3D exercise and the WSG received neurophysiological treatment and performed weight shifting exercise, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale and 10m walking time were used to evaluate the patients’ balance and walking abilities. [Results] Balance and gait abilities of patients improved HM781-36B in both the 3DG and the WSG. A comparison of the two groups found that the 3DG showed a greater improvement in balance ability than the WSG. [Conclusion] 3- dimensional exercise with visual feedback is effective at improving the balance and gait of stroke patients.”
“Purpose of review The purpose of this study is to summarize recent advances in ageing and neuroAIDS by reviewing relevant articles from the preceding 18 months from PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Recent findings The success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to ageing of the HIV-infected population, which in turn contributes to the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Biomedical advances continue to clarify the pathophysiology of HAND despite effective cART, including chronic inflammatory and neurovascular causes.
Case study. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman
who had a witnessed out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, was resuscitated by paramedics, but remained comatose. An EEG, performed 36 hours post-insult, showed an unremitting, non-evolving, unresponsive 2-6 Hz high-voltage spike burst/isoelectric suppression pattern, which remained unchanged at 96 hours post-insult, following therapeutic Prexasertib supplier hypothermia. During this period, she was completely off sedation and taking triple antiepileptic treatment, without systemic confounding disorders. Although the initial pattern was indicative of poor neurological outcome, she eventually made meaningful functional recovery; the last EEG showed satisfactory background
rhythms and stimulus-induced epileptiform discharges without seizures. Conclusion. GW4869 molecular weight In post-anoxic coma, non-evolving >2 Hz spike burst/isoelectric suppression pattern may still reflect NCSE and therefore should be considered in the diagnostic EEG criteria for NCSE. Such borderline patterns should not dissuade physicians from intensifying treatment until more confident prognostication can be made.”
“Controlled-release drug delivery systems are capable of treating debilitating diseases, including cancer. Brain cancer, in particular glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is an extremely invasive cancer with a dismal prognosis. The use of drugs capable of crossing the blood brain barrier has shown modest prolongation in patient survival, but not without unsatisfactory systemic, dose-limiting toxicity. Among the reasons for this improvement include a better understanding of the challenges of delivery of effective agents directly to the brain tumor site. The combination of carmustine delivered
by biodegradable polyanhydride wafers (Gliadel (R)), with the systemic alkylating agent, temozolomide, allows much higher effective doses of the drug while minimizing the systemic toxicity. We have previously shown that locally FK228 mouse delivering these two drugs leads to further improvement in survival in experimental models. We postulated that microcapsule devices capable of releasing temozolomide would increase the therapeutic capability of this approach. A biocompatible drug delivery microcapsule device for the intracranial delivery of temozolomide is described. Drug release profiles from these microcapsules can be modulated based on the physical chemistry of the drug and the dimensions of the release orifices in these devices. The drug released from the microcapsules in these experiments was the clinically utilized chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide. In vitro studies were performed in order to test the function, reliability, and drug release kinetics of the devices.
Because the causative factors of
hypertension Quisinostat change over time, denervation of both efferent and afferent renal nerves should result in long-term attenuation of hypertension. The importance of the renal nerves in hypertensive patients can now be defined with the novel development of percutaneous, minimally invasive renal denervation from within the renal artery using radiofrequency energy as a therapeutic strategy. Studies thus far show that catheter-based renal denervation in patients with resistant essential hypertension lowers systolic blood pressure 27 mm Hg by 12 months, with the estimated glomerular filtration rate remaining stable. The decrease in arterial pressure after renal denervation is associated with decreased peripheral sympathetic nervous system activity, suggesting that the kidney is a source of significant central LY3023414 molecular weight sympathetic outflow via afferent renal nerve activity.”
“The research on species with capacity to tolerate and accumulate zinc is of paramount importance for phytoremediation purposes. An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of
Zn from 0 to 100 mmoll(-1) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus and nutrient uptake of the halophytic species Juncus acutus. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments concentration were measured. We also determined total zinc, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and sodium concentrations, as well as C/N ratio. J. acutus showed high tolerance to Zn-induced stress, since all plants survived and none of them showed any toxicity symptoms, such as chlorosis, necrosis or growth reduction at concentrations up to 100 mmoll(-1) Zn. The integrity and functionality of the photosynthetic
apparatus were unaffected even at zinc concentrations greater than 500 mg kg(-1) on tillers. Likewise, nutrient absorption was relatively unaffected. Zn tolerance was associated with the capacity to accumulate Zn in roots (with values up to 2500 mg kg(-1)) and largely avoid its transport to tillers. These characteristics, along with its ability to establish in a wide variety of ecosystems, render this species a useful phytostabilizer Quizartinib in vivo for revegetation of Zn-contaminated lands. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A batch recovery of riboflavin via foam separation from industrial simulative wastewater was studied using a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The experimental parameters examined were the surfactant concentration, air flow rate, pH, and foam height. Under optimal operating conditions obtained through an orthogonal experiment, the maximum enrichment ratio of 48.7 was achieved for riboflavin along with 99.3% removal efficiency. The optimal operating conditions had the concentration of CTAB at 0.3 g/L, air flow rate at 400 ml/min, foam height at 90 cm, and pH at 12.
2% agarose gel, purified and subjected to direct sequencing to screen for mutations. Results: Sequencing analysis resulted in the identification of a mutation within exon 7 of IRF6 that occurred in heterozygous condition in 9% (3/32) of OSCC samples. The wild type codon TTC at position 252 coding for phenylalanine was found to be mutated to TAC that coded for tyrosine (F252Y). Conclusions: The present study identified for the first time a novel mutation within the conserved protein binding domain of IRF6 gene in tissue samples of subjects with OSCC.”
is generally considered a benign unilateral sinonasal tumor. Its synchronous bilateral multicentric occurrence is extremely rare. A 22-year-old male patient presented with stage III inverted papilloma involving both ethmoid sinuses, both frontal LY3023414 sinuses, and cribriform area. The patient also had a large osteoma emanating from the basal part of the frontal sinus septum, which completely obstructed both nasofrontal recesses, leaving no communication between the sinuses and the nasal cavity. The frontal sinus septum was intact, so there was no communication between the 2 sides either.\n\nFollowing the era of aggressive surgical approaches dominated by lateral rhinotomy
and medial maxillectomy, the advent of endoscopic techniques has dramatically improved visualization of sinus chambers and nasal Geneticin solubility dmso cavity, resulting in lower morbidity and similar results to those achieved with open surgical procedures. In our patient, the concomitant presence of a huge frontal sinus osteoma posed an unacceptable risk for endoscopic resection due to the possible
residual disease in the nasofrontal recess regions.\n\nSurgical resection remains the mainstay treatment and should be tailored in accordance with the localization and spread of disease. The surgeon should be ready to check details use different surgical approaches and, if intraoperatively needed, to modify them accordingly.”
“The three flavonoids including naringenin, hesperetin and apigenin binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.4 was studied by fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained revealed that naringenin, hesperetin and apigenin strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The Stern-Volmer curves suggested that these quenching processes were all static quenching processes. At 291 K, the value and the order of the binding constant were K-A ((naringenin))=4.08 x 10(4) < K-A ((hesperetin))=5,40 x 10(4) approximate to K-A ((apigenin))=5.32 x 10(4) L mol(-1). The main binding force between the flavonoid and BSA was hydrophobic and electrostatic force. According to the Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding distances (r(0)) were obtained as 3.36, 3.47 and 3.30 nm for naringenin-BSA, hesperetin-BSA and apigenin-BSA, respectively.
We employed quantitative microscopic analyses of human Argonaute 2 (hAgo2) mutants to study factors that govern localization Selleckchem GSK2399872A of this RNA-binding protein to cytoplasmic RNA granules. We report, for the first time, that hAgo2 is recruited to stress granules as a consequence of its interaction with miRNAs. Moreover, loading of small RNAs onto hAgo2 is not required for its stability, suggesting that a pool of unloaded hAgo2 may exist for extended periods of time in the cytoplasm. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Inducible phase 2 enzymes constitute a primary line of cellular defense. The oleanane dicyanotriterpenoid
2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana1,9(11)-dien-28-onitrile (TP-225) is a very potent inducer of these systems. Topical application of TP-225 to
SKH-1 hairless mice increases the levels of NAD(P)H-quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and protects against UV radiation-induced dermal thickening. Daily topical treatments of 10 nmol of TP-225 to the backs of mice that were previously subjected to low-level chronic UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2)/session, twice a week for 17 weeks), led to 50% reduction in multiplicity of skin tumors. In addition, the total tumor burden of squamous cell click here carcinomas was reduced by 5.5-fold. The identification of new agents for protection against UV radiation-induced skin cancer and understanding of their mechanism(s) of action is especially important in view of the fact that human skin cancers represent a significant
source of increasing morbidity and mortality. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A high prevalence of the sequence variant c.1436C -> T in the CPT1A gene has been identified among Alaska Native newborns but the clinical implications of this variant are unknown. We conducted medically supervised fasts in 5 children homozygous for the c.1436C -> J variant. Plasma free fatty acids increased normally in these selleck kinase inhibitor children but their long-chain acylcarnitine and ketone production was significantly blunted. The fast was terminated early in two subjects due to symptoms of hypoglycemia. Homozygosity for the c.1436C -> T sequence variant of CPT1A impairs fasting ketogenesis, and can cause hypoketotic hypoglycemia in young children.\n\nTrial registration\n\nwww.clinical trials.gov NCT00653666 “Metabolic Consequences of CPT1A Deficiency” (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The transcription factor p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling the distinct roles for p73 in these two processes have remained unclear. Here, we report that p73 is able to induce cell cycle arrest independently of its amino-terminal transactivation domain, whereas this domain is crucial for p73 proapoptotic functions.
Fire blight resistance evaluations for apples often buy SC79 use a scale of I to 5 and pear evaluations use a scale of 1 to 9. In some reports, a low number means low susceptibility and in other reports, a low number means low resistance. Other disease evaluations rate resistance as greater than or less than a well-documented standard cultivar.
Environment, pathogen isolate, and whether disease ratings are the result of natural infection or artificial inoculation also have a strong impact on disease resistance ratings. Before a wider set of disease resistance phenotype data can be correlated with genetic data, rating scales must be standardized and the evaluation environment must be taken into account. Standardizing the recording of disease resistance data in plant phenotype databases will improve the ability to correlate these data with genomic data.”
“In the face of natural and man-made disasters, ensuring the safety of
drinking water is the fundamental guarantee of disaster victims’ lives and health. As compact and efficient water purification equipment, disaster emergency water filter is a kind of effective emergency measures. Activated carbon fiber (ACF), KaiDeFei (KDF) and chitosan were investigated as water purification R406 solubility dmso materials for the removal of Cd2+, residual chlorine and chloroform at low concentration. Studies on purification ability of three water purification materials were performed at contact THZ1 order time, dose and initial concentration in the batch mode. Through studies of water purification materials and ingredient proportions, the results showed that ACF: KDF: chitosan = 2:1:1 was the best mass ratio combination. After the purifying of filter element, the concentration of Cd2+, residual chlorine and chloroform respectively decreased to less than 0.003, 0.20, and 0.02 mg/L. The water quality got a significant improvement and satisfied the human body direct drinking standards. The disaster emergency water purifier filter element could effectively
remove the trace contaminant, and it was cheaper in cost and simpler in operation, thus it could be considered as an effective method for water purification in disaster and emergency.”
“The production of hydrogen from water electrolysis calls for an efficient non-precious-metal catalyst to make the process economically viable because of the high cost and the limited supply of the currently used platinum catalysts. Here we present such a catalyst made from earth-abundant molybdenum and common, humble soybeans (MoSoy). This catalyst, composed of a catalytic beta-Mo2C phase and an acid-proof gamma-Mo2N phase, drives the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with low overpotentials, and is highly durable in a corrosive acidic solution over a period exceeding 500 hours. When supported on graphene sheets, the MoSoy catalyst exhibits very fast charge transfer kinetics, and its performance rivals that of noble-metal catalysts such as Pt for hydrogen production.